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What's the best way to sew up my sweater/jersey when I'm done knitting?

For the side seams, I like to use a technique called "mattress stitch". With the right side of the fabric facing you, the front and back lying side by side, and using a yarn or tapestry needle threaded with the same yarn as the jersey, insert the needle between the first and second stitch in from the edge, underneath two of the "bars" of yarn that run between the stitches. Then, working with the other piece, do the same, always working 1 stitch in from the edge, and picking up two "bars" or threads of yarn. Continue up the seam this way, alternating sides until completed. Check the tension of your sewing from time to time. It should be fairly tight for the seam to look "seamless". On the inside, there should be a very neat seam allowance of just one stitch on each side. For an even less bulky seam, in fine yarns, you may work the seam 1/2 stitch in from the edge (sewing up the center of the first stitch at the edge of the garment).

This technique is described and illustrated on Lucy Neatby's web site.

To sew sleeves to the body (when it's not a raglan), I use a combination of mattress stitch and weaving. I do the mattress stitch technique of picking up the bars between the stitches on the body side of the seam, and then weave around the top of the sleeve stitches to make what looks like another knitted stitch. Generally, the ratio of stitches to rows is about 3:4, but on a fitted sleeve, the best method is to ease the sleeve in and fasten it to the body every inch or two with safety pins, and then sew it in place.  

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